Verbitskaya Ol'ga Mikhaylovna, Doctor of historical sciences, principal researcher, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (19 Dmitry Ulyanova street, Moscow, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The relevance and purpose of the article is determined by the importance of scientific understanding of the events of modern Russian history, including the market reforms of the 1990s, in Addition to radical changes in the political system and the Russian economy, they have significantly changed its demographic and ethnic composition. Unlike economists and sociologists, who have been studying the impact of reforms on the lives of Russians almost from the very beginning, historians have only recently begun to do so, keeping the necessary time distance. The purpose of the article is the study of changes in the ethnic composition of
the residents of the Russian Federation for the period of the 1990s and the identification of their root causes.
Materials and methods. The author solves research problems with the involvement of a wide range of sources (population censuses of 1989 and 2002, periodicals, demographic statistics, unpublished materials of the Federal Migration service of
Russia, borrowed from the funds of the state archive of the Russian Federation, etc.).
In the process of implementation of the research tasks, the decisive role of external migration to Russia was identified, its causes, forms, places of exit and scale were determined, which accordingly reflected in the change in the national composition of
the population. The methodological potential of the article is represented by comparative historical and statistical methods, the use of which allowed to compare the ethnic appearance of the population of the Russian Federation in the last years of Soviet history and in the early XXI century.
Results. The scale and structure of the influx of refugees from the “hot spots” of the former USSR are studied, their generally significant role in neutralizing the negative consequences of the natural decline of Russians and the formation of a more favorable demographic situation is revealed. A comparison of census data allowed us to clarify a number of previously made negative forecasts regarding the ethnic composition of the Russian Federation: the number of Russians, though decreased, but on a much smaller scale; Azerbaijanis, though increased, but only by 85 % compared to 1989. The maximum increase was provided by the Armenians, whose numerical presence in Russia doubled; but at the same time the number of Ukrainians and Belarusians decreased; to a lesser extent – Germans and Jews who emigrated to their historical homeland, etc.
Conclusions. The study of the features of the ethnic appearance of Russians in the early 2000s allowed to draw a number of conclusions about the policy of the state in this area. In particular, while the migration policy in Russia will remain rather sluggish and inactive, poorly responding to the rapidly changing situation in the country and the world, the total population of Russia is likely to decline, and the ratio of individual ethnic groups – to change. In such circumstances, the predominance of Russian will continue its reduction. The real concern for the preservation of ethnic essence implies more careful planning of the volumes of historically justified
migration to our country and categorical refusal of admission of Arab refugees, who due to their powerful reproductive potential are able to very quickly turn the Slavs and other peoples of Russia into its national minorities, with all the ensuing consequences for our spiritual values.
inter-ethnic conflicts, migrants have to surrender the settlers, inmigration, the geography of the places of exit and reception, the resettlement of refugees on the territory of the Russian Federation, the migrants and formation of population, changes in ethnic composition of the Russian population
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